Optimizing Real Time fMRI for Neurotherapeutic Discovery and Development


Luke Stoeckel, Kathleen A. Garrison, Satrajit S Ghosh, Paul Wighton, Colleen A. Hanlon, Jodi M. Gilman, Stephanie Greer, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne, Megan T. deBettencourt, Dustin Scheinost, Cameron Craddock, Todd Thompson, Vanessa Calderon, Clemens C. Bauer, Mark George, Hans C. Breiter, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D. Gabrieli, Stephen M. LaConte, Laurence M. Hirshberg, Judson A. Brewer, Michelle Hampson, Andre Van Der Kouwe, Sean Mackey, Anne E Evins
While reducing the burden of brain disorders remains a top priority of organizations like the World Health Organization and National Institutes of Health (BRAIN, 2013), the development of novel, safe and effective treatments for brain disorders has been slow. In this paper, we describe the state of the science for an emerging neurotechnology, real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). We outline the scientific potential of rtfMRI as well as research strategies to optimize the development and application of rtfMRI as a next generation neurotherapeutic tool. We propose that rtfMRI can be used to deepen our understanding of brain-behavior relationships and inform our efforts to develop more effective therapeutic interventions for individuals with brain disorders. Our overall goal is for rtfMRI to advance personalized assessment and intervention approaches to enhance resilience and reduce morbidity by correcting maladaptive patterns of brain function in those with brain disorders.