Neil R Smalheiser, Giovanni Lugli
Synaptosomes are a popular type of isolated synaptic fraction intensively used in neuroscience and cell biology. They are prepared by layering on density gradients and thought to consist largely of axonal endings with attached postsynaptic structures (Morgan, 1976), in contrast to synaptoneurosomes (Hollingsworth et al, 1985) which are prepared by filtration and are thought to consist largely of pinched-off dendritic spines with attached presynaptic structures. Although most studies of synaptosomes have utilized rodent or primate tissue, a score of studies have employed human samples derived from surgical specimens or postmortem brain. We recently described the isolation of synaptosomes from human postmortem prefrontal cortex to study the expression of synaptic microRNAs and other small RNAs in depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Smalheiser et al, 2014). This protocol alluded to methods and modifications that are scattered among several publications, and did not explain the reasons for the procedures chosen. Because our protocol differs from other published human synaptosome protocols in a variety of respects, we present here a detailed description of synaptosome preparation that should facilitate the use of this standardized synaptic fraction by other workers.